During periods of Arctic air outbreaks in winter, it is not uncommon for the typical daily temperature routine to be turned upside down. Temperatures might fall all day long or rise through the night. The warmest temperature of the day might happen in the middle of the night and the coldest part of the day might be in the afternoon. There is no terminology for this except to refer to it descriptively as non-standard, diurnal temperature ranges.
This happens because of the sharp temperature boundaries which are common in cold air. The temperature changes are sometimes accompanied by strong wind and blowing snow, but more often it just gets colder or warmer at a non-standard time of day.
For the daily high temperature to happen at night or for temperatures to fall throughout the day would be unheard of in the summer.