Minnesota's Backyard: A slice of the region's original timber industry history at William O'Brien State Park
Long before there were lumber camps in Minnesota's north woods, lumberjacks were downing what was thought to be a limitless supply of white pine along the St. Croix River. At William O'Brien State Park, visitors can hike, bike and paddle in the place where the industry began, nearly 200 years ago.
MARINE ON ST. CROIX, Minn. — When one thinks about the timber industry in Minnesota, it is natural for the mind to wander to the towering forests of the northeastern part of the state. In places like the Lost 40 and the Forest History Center — with its replica of a lumber camp from 1900 — visitors can get an idea of the life of real lumberjacks who would venture out into the woods to fell massive trees on cold winter days.
But European settlement of Minnesota began closer to the Twin Cities, and many would be surprised to know that the origins of the state’s timber industry began as early as 1839 on the St. Croix River, just outside what today is the metro area. The region was once home to what was considered an “endless” supply of white pine and, with the nearby river, there was a way to float those logs downstream to places like Stillwater, where sawmills would process the wood.
Today, some of the territory that once crawled with lumberjacks in the days before Minnesota became a state, can be seen by visitors to William O’Brien State Park , which is named for one of the original lumber barons to make his fortune in the trade in Minnesota. In 1945, O’Brien’s daughter Alice donated 180 acres for the formation of a state park. Nearly eight decades later, that park has grown tenfold, with more than 1,800 acres of prairie, hardwood forest and riverfront protected for public use.
Just 20 miles or so up the river at Interstate State Park , the land along the St. Croix is dominated by towering river bluffs and dramatic rock formations. At William O’Brien the land is flatter, and many of the hiking trails provide visitors a view of rolling oak savanna and tallgrass prairie. The popular Prairie Overlook Trail is nearly 4 miles one way, but those who make it to the end have earned a notable vista of the river valley once they reach the top.
That constitutes roughly one-fourth of the park’s 16 miles of hiking trails, but this is a multi-use park, where visitors can truly find their niche, from paddling the river’s calm waters, to a family-friendly beach on Lake Alice (named for the park land’s original donor) to 2 miles of paved bike trails to designated spots for fishing. The park’s visitor center offers a more detailed history of the region and naturalist programs for those who want to know the science behind the sights.
Just outside the park boundaries, a significant part of the tiny town of Marine on St. Croix (estimated population: 712, per Wikipedia) is included on the National Register of Historic Places. It was home to the region’s first commercial sawmill nearly 200 years ago, and retains some of the quaint charm more commonly seen in small-town New England. The town’s official website lists a half-dozen places where weary hikers can get a beverage, a sandwich or a piece of chocolate after exploring the state park.
This article is part of the " Minnesota's Backyard " series which returns for the summer of 2022.